Abstract: This paper addressees a systematic, comprehensive classification of electric bicycles that includes an overview of the state of the art of today’s commercially available electric bicycles. The overview includes less commonly considered topics, such as regulatory issues in various countries, and different performance requirements of electric bicycles. have been making their way into the U.S. market for about two decades. In this paper, the term “electric bicycle” is used to describe “electric-motor-powered bicycles,” including both fully and partially motor-powered bicycles. Electric bicycles can be used for a variety of purposes, for instance, as a vehicle for police or law enforcement in cities where parking and traffic are a problem, as a guide bicycle during bicycle races, as a park ranger vehicle, or for leisurely rides and commuting purposes. The paper then gives a summary of the different results that can serve as a roadmap for such improvements. This summary includes both market trends and regulations and technical-science-related aspects. Different paths of further research to build on the presented work are outlined in the conclusion.

Keywords: electric-motor-powered bicycles, direct current (DC), hub motor, gears.